Asansol Division was established in 1925. This is one of the oldest divisions on the Indian Railways and has always been in the forefront of operations, both freight and passenger. As far as Eastern Railway is concerned, Asansol Division is referred to as the heart of operations, being at the crossroads of the Grand Chord route via Gaya and the main line route via Patna.
The division extends on the main line from the distant signal of Khana junction in the east to distant signal of Jhajha station in the west. On the Grand Chord line, the administrative control of Asansol Division is upto the distant signal of Pradhankhunta. Territorial jurisdiction of this division also extends over following branch lines: Andal-Sainthia, Andal–Tapasi–Barabani–Sitarampur, Madhupur–Giridih, Jasidih–Baidyanathdham, Jasidih to Dumka and Deoghar to Banka. It serves the densely populated states of West Bengal, Bihar & Jharkhand covering nine districts viz. Barddhaman and Birbhum in West Bengal, Jamui and Banka in Bihar & Dhanbad, Jamtara, Giridih, Deoghar and Dumka in Jharkhand.
With a total of 683.44 route kilometers, the division has the unique distinction of having quadruple lines (two up and two down lines) from Khana to Sitarampur.
Traffic on the division is predominantly freight with coal as the principal commodity loaded from Raniganj, Mugma, Jamtara and Giridih regions. Other goods include cement loaded at DCW Durgapur, UTCL Durgapur and Lafarge Raniganj, Steel materials from Durgapur and IISCO and parcel traffic originating from Asansol, Durgapur, Raniganj, Madhupur and Jasidih.
Asansol Division serves major power houses like Mejia (DVC), Bakreshwar(WBPDCL), DTPS(DVC) and DSTPS at Waria. Large number of sponge Iron plants and mini steel plants are also located on the division.
Places of interest for passengers include Baidyanathdham, the abode of Lord Shiva where devotees throng in lakhs during the Shravani Mela period. Giridih is famous as a gateway terminus to Parasnath temple. Bakreswar has hot water springs, which is about 30 Kms from Siuri station and is a quiet place of retreat and the water is said to have curative property. Maithan Dam is located at a distance of 23 km from Asansol which is the biggest reservoir in the Damodar Valley Corporation. This dam attracts lots of tourists for its unique underground power station and is a natural picnic spot. The ancient Kalyaneshwari temple lies very close to this dam.